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Internet Protocol and Types

computer network
Computer Network and Communication Devices
August 19, 2018
Network Reference Model
August 19, 2018

Network

Internet Protocol(IP) and their types

12 hours      Beginners

IP Address Internet Protocol (IP) addresses are unique number that identifier every device which are connects to a TCP/IP network. An IP address performer two functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. It is similar to address of your office,home,school.

IP address is two type: IPv4 and IPv6

IPv4
Example of an IPv4 address: 155.15.1.7
IPv
Example of an IPv6 address: FE38:DCE3:124C:C1A2:BA03:6735:EF1C:683D
Static Versus Dynamic IP Addresses

An IP address can be static or dynamic. A static IP address will never change which permanently assign to a host. A dynamic IP address is a temporary address that is assigned each time a computer or device accesses the Internet. The four numbers in an IP address are used in different ways to identify a particular network and a host on that network. Four regional Internet registries -- ARIN, RIPE NCC, LACNIC and APNIC-- assign Internet addresses

Hierarchical Addressing Scheme IP addresses are 32-bit unique identifiers, is divided into two or three parts as depicted: The bits of an IP address are divided into octets. IP addresses are considered hierarchical addresses because the address space is divided into ordered chunks. The 32 bits are not in its entirety a unique identifier. A segment of the IP address is the network address, and another segment is the host (node) address. This segregation is what makes IP addresses hierarchical structured addresses. This scheme enables the IP Address to be hierarchical where a network can have many sub-networks which in turn can have many hosts.

Subnet Mask The 32-bit IP address contains information about the host and its network. Subnet Mask divides the IP address into network address and host address. Subnet Mask is made by setting network bits to all "1"s and setting host bits to all "0"s. Within a given network, two host addresses are reserved for special purpose, and cannot be assigned to hosts. The "0" address is assigned a network address and "255" is assigned to a broadcast address, and they cannot be assigned to hosts.

.

For example, say the IP Address is

172.16.2.160 and the Subnet Mask is 255.255.255.0 then:

This way the Subnet Mask helps extract the Network ID and the Host from an IP Address. It can be identified now that 172.16.2.0 is the Network number and 172.168.2.160 is the host on that network.

Binary Representation The

positional value method is the simplest form of converting binary from decimal value. IP address is 32 bit value which is divided into 4 octets. A binary octet contains 8 bits and the value of each bit can be determined by the position of bit value '1' in the octet.

The following table represents the value for each bit in a byte (remember, a byte is 8 bits). In binary math, the values for the bits ascend from right to left, just as in the decimal system you're accustomed to:

Now that we know how to calculate the value for each bit in a byte, creating large numbers in binary is simply a matter of turning on certain bits and then adding together the values of those bits. So what does an 8-bit binary number like 00101110 represent? The following table dissects this number. Remember, a computer uses 1 to signify "on" and 0 to signify "off":

IP address classes These IP addresses can further be broken down into classes. These classes are A, B, C, D, E and their possible ranges can be seen in Figure 2 below.

Class A 0.0.0.0 - 126.255.255.255
Class B 128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255
Class C 192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255
Class D 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
Class E 240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255

The range of IP address from Class A to Class B skips the 127.0.0.0-127.255.255.255 range. That is because this range is reserved for the special addresses called Loopback addresses.

The rest of classes are allocated to companies and organizations based upon the amount of IP addresses that they may need.

Class A: From the table above you see that there are 126 class A networks. These networks consist of 16,777,214 possible IP addresses that can be assigned to devices and computers. This type of allocation is generally given to very large networks such as multi-national companies.

Loopback: This is the special 127.0.0.0 network that is reserved as a loopback to your own computer. These addresses are used for testing and debugging of your programs or hardware.

Class B: This class consists of 16,384 individual networks, each allocation consisting of 65,534 possible IP addresses. These blocks are generally allocated to Internet Service Providers and large networks, like a college or major hospital.

Class C: There is a total of 2,097,152 Class C networks available, with each network consisting of 255 individual IP addresses. This type of class is generally given to small to mid-sized companies.

Class D: The IP addresses of this class are reserved for a service called Multicast.

Class E: The IP addresses of this class are reserved for experimental use.

Broadcast: This is the special network of 255.255.255.255, and is used for broadcasting messages to the entire network that your computer resides on.

Private Addresses There are also blocks of IP addresses that are set aside for internal private use for computers not directly connected to the Internet. These IP addresses are not supposed to be routed through the Internet, and most service providers will block the attempt to do so. These IP addresses are used for internal use by company or home networks that need to use TCP/IP but do not want to be directly visible on the Internet. These IP ranges are:

Class A Range 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
Class B Range 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
Class C Range 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

If you are on a home/office private network and want to use TCP/IP, you should assign your computers/devices IP addresses from one of these three ranges.

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Pintu Jaiswal

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